[coins] [Area V map] [Area V list]
... BC site visited by Greek traders
... BC settlement of Rhodians only? First walled 'Lindioi'
688 BC founded by Antiphemos and Entimos with Dorians from Rhodes and Crete.
       Cults of Athena Lindia, Apollo and Achelous (river-god) were almost certainly derived
       from Rhodes.
       Herakles fought the river Achelous (which appeared as male with bull's head) and broke his
... BC As the most westerly Greek colony in Sicily, expansion into the hinterland (to the west and
       to the north).
       to the west the Sikan fortress Omphake (= M. Bubbonia? or Butera?) was captured.
600 BC (circa) spoils from Ariaiton dedicated to Athena Lindia.
       After a conflict (between Rhodian and Cretan elements?) part of the population left for
       Maktorion (Butera? or M. Bubbonia?). Telines an ancester of Gelon persuaded the seceders
       to return.
       Gela was ruled by an oligarchy down to the time of the tyrants. These tyrants came from the
       circle of the oligarchy.
       Gela (and Leontinoi) rose to a considerable height of luxury, even more than Syracuse.
       The peace during the sixth century may be the reason for the lack of Geloan history during 
       this period.
       Imports at (Syracuse and) Gela as elsewhere in Sicily were monopolised by Corinth. Later in 
       the sixth century Athena became more important.
580 BC Akragas founded from Gela (new colonists from Rhodes), perhaps part of the wider
       colonisation in western Sicily headed by Pentathlos.
550 BC (circa) Akragas liberated itself from Gela, tyranny of Phalaris.
       The Himeras river became the border between the territories of Akragas and Gela.
550 BC Camarina made itself independent from Syracuse. Allies of Camarina against Syracuse were 
       Sikels and others, but not the Geloans.
       Gela was throughout her history an ally of Syracuse.
508 BC Pantares first Sicilian that gained a chariot victory at the Olympic games.
505 BC End of the olichargy (maybe as a reaction to the growing power of Carthage).
505 BC - 498 BC Kleandros (son of Pantares?) tyrant. Kleandros was assassinated by a man called 
498 BC - 491/90 BC Hippokrates (brother of Kleandros) tyrant. Gela became for a time the most 
       powerful city in Sicily.
       Expansion to the north towards the plain of Catana. Kallipolis (a colony of Naxos, probably in 
       the Aetna region), Naxos, Zankle, Leontinoi, (Catana?).
       From the south, perhaps via Camarina, the Syracusans were defeated in a battle on the river
       Heloros. Syracuse was not captured as a result of the mediation of Corinth and Corcyra.
       Camarina resettled, partly at least with Geloans.
       The conquered cities were controled by sub-tyrants: Zankle (Skythes, until the arrival of the 
       Samians 493 BC), Leontinoi (Ainesidemos) and Camarina (Glaukos).

       wars against the Sikels. Against Ergetion and Hybla (Hybla Geleatis? Both cities in the Aitna 
       region), where Hippokrates lost his life.
490/89 BC Anaxilas of Rhegion seized the Samian allies of Zankle.
491/90 - 478/7 BC Gelon (commander of Hippokrates' cavalry and one of his right-hand men) tyrant.
488 BC Gelon won a chariot victory in the Olympic games
       campaign or proposed campaign against Carthage. Supported by Theron of Akragas, but not by the 
       Greeks of Greece.
486/485 BC Gelon took power in Syracuse (interfered in Syracusan internal affairs. A few years earlier 
       the ruling oligarchy the Gamoroi were exiled to Kasmenai).
       Syracuse enlarged and strengthened by people from captured Megara, the entire population of 
       Camarina, and over half the population of Gela. Gela on the second plan.

       Hieron (brother of Gelon) left as ruler of Gela.
482 BC Hieron celebrated a victory in the horse-race at Delphi.
480 BC Himera campaign against Carthago by Syracuse and allies Akragas (and Gela?).
       large issues of tetradrachms by Hieron and Polyzalos at Gela can be regarded as the counterpart 
       of the enormous Syracusan issue of these years.
478/7 BC Hieron succeeded Gelon as ruler of Syracuse. Polyzalos, the third brother in turn succeeded 
       Hieron at Gela.
       Expeditions to Sybaris and against the Sikels.
474 BC victory Polyzalos at the Pythian games. Monument at Delphi (from which the famous 
       Charioteer is the most notable survival).
474 BC Hieron send a naval expedition to Kymai (victory over the Etruscans). Gela probably not 
       participaed in this campaign. The ketos symbol on coins of Gela (on Syracusan coins supposed to 
       commemorate the Kymai victory), is of somewhat later date and thus can hardly be used as 
466/465 BC Thrasyboulos ruler over Syracuse after Hieron's dead (Polyzalos died aerlier)
       Gela, Akragas and Selinus liberated Syracuse from Thrasyboulos (the last of the tyrants).
       The mint of Gela reopened, having been inactive during part of the tyranny of Polyzalos and 
463 BC Attack on Gela by groups of mercenaries from Omphake and Kakyron.
       Battle (at Krastos? = Kasser? near Castronovo half way between Akragas and Himera) of Gela and 
       Himera against Akragantines (basically a border dispute between Himera and Akragas).
460 BC Gela recolonised Camarina. Camarina under Geloan influence, probably until the war of
       427-424 BC.
465-450 BC rise of Sikel leader Duketios. Sikel federation in the hinterland. Fortified capital at 
       Palike. Chalcidian colonies most manaced, but also expansion to the west.
       Motyon (presumably somewhere to the west of the Himeras) captured from the Akragantines.
       No direct attack on any of the Greek cities, but their hold on the hinterland was seriously 
451 BC Duketios defeated at Nomai and exiled to Corinth by Syracuse (which angered the Akragantines).
446 BC Duketios escaped from Corinth and established a new colony in Sicily at Kale Akte.
       battle between Syracuse and Akragas at the River Himeras (Gela involved?).
440 BC Duketios died, re-establishment of Greek control over the hinterland.
       Divisions between the Greek cities. Intervention of Athens.
       458/7 BC treaty of alliance Athena with Segesta.
                treaty Athena with Leontinoi and Rhegion
433/2 BC treaties with Athens renewed.
427-424 BC
       war between Syracuse and the Dorian cities of Sicily. Surprisingly Camarina shared Syracuse,
       perhaps to assertain her independence of Gela.
       war between Leontinoi and the Chalcidian cities. Athens send a naval squadron to aid Leontinoi.
       Athens against Syracuse and Messana. All xpeditions corcern eastern Sicily (except for Laches' 
       expedition to the Lipari islands and one expedition to Camerina when a pro-Syracusan party 
       threatened to gain control there).
       424 BC pan-Sicilian peace congres at Gela (Gela and Camarina took the initiative).
       Camarina obtained control over Morgantina.
       The Athenian force left from Rhegion to Athens.
422 BC internal class-war in Leontinoi. Intervention by Syracuse. Temporary abandonment of Leontinoi 
       followed by a partial resettlement.
       Phaiax from Athens tried to re-form an anti-Syracusan coalition in Sicily (some support from 
       Camarina and Akragas). Gela however was on the side of the Syracusans.
415 BC - 413 BC Expedition of Athens to conquer Sicily (and to assist her allies Segesta and 
       Leontinoi). Their opponent Syracuse was helped by contingents of Gela, Camarina, Selinus, 
       Himera, and from the Peloponnese. 200 cavelry from Gela were present at the first full-scale 
       attack launched by the Athenians. A Geloan force joined Gylippos (from Sparta, send by 
       Alcibiades) on his arrival at Himera and his march to relieve the now partially invested 
       Syracuse in 414 BC. In 413 almost all Greek cities were drawn into the struggle (except for 
       Akragas). Gela sent crews for five ships, 400 akonosts and 200 cavalry. The force provided by 
       Camarina was at least as great or greater than that of Gela. A much larger force was provided 
       by Selinus. Also Himera and the Sikels provided forces. The Sicilian cities as a whole provided 
       more aid to Syracuse than did the allies in mainland Greece. In 413 the Athenian invasion was 
409 BC first Carthagian expedition (to revenge the defeat of 480). Destruction of Selinus and Himera.
       A force from Syracuse was inaffective.
408 BC counter-attack on Punic Sicily from his base Selinus by the Syracusan leader Hermokrates, also 
406 BC second Carthaginian attack, this time against Akragas. Dexippos (Spartan condottiere who 
       happened to be in Gela) was engaged to lead the defence. A force (enlarged with soldiers from 
       Gela and Camerina) was sent by Syracuse under Daphnaios. Nevertheless after eight months 
       Akragas abandoned to the Carthaginians. Dexippos and his troops withdraw to Gela. Also the 
       population fled to Gela (later to Leontinoi). Also Dionysios (at that time general of Syracuse) 
       came with a force to Gela.
       In Gela there was a revolt against the oligarchy. The property of the rich was confiscated to 
       pay the mercenary armies present in the city (first issue of gold coins?). Dionysios left Gela 
       to strengthen his position in Syracuse. Dionysios failed to persuade Dexippos to participate. 
       Dionysios removed his opponents, sent Dixippos away to Greece and recalled the mercenaries from 
       Gela to Syracuse. Gela was left without any outside help.
405 BC Gela sieged by the Carthaginians. In this time the whole hill of Gela was not enclosed by 
       walls. Statue of Apollo from a sanctuary outside the walls captured by the Carthaginians.   
       Second issue of gold coins to hire some mercenaries, who could reach the city by sea. As 
       promised Dionysios arrived with a large force. However, the forces withdrew and the population 
       was evacuated (also the population of Camarina). Gela and Camarina fell into Carthaginian 
404 BC Dionysios concluded a treaty with Carthage. His own position as ruler of Syracuse was 
       recognised. The inhabitants of the Greek cities were allowed to return (probably few did), they 
       were to pay tribute to Carthage and dismantle their defences.  
339 BC recolonisation of Gela by Gorgos of Keos (also with descendants of the old inhabitants), 
       Timoleon himself being regarded as the founder. Great fortification walls were erected 
       (preserved at Capo Soprano).
317 BC oligarchs of Syracuse took refuge to Gela. Attack by Agathokles.
314 BC Gela alliance with Akragas and Messana against Agathokles of Syracuse.
312 BC conflict between Syracuse and Carthage  brought war to Gela. Agathokles captured Gela and 
       confiscated the properties of the oligarchy.
311 BC Agathokles retreated to Gela after the defeat at Eknomos. The Timoleonic walls were modified by 
       the addition of the upper courses of mud-brick, thus making Gela a strong-point against 
       Carthaginian attack.
309 BC Gela temporarily liberated (by an Akragantine soldier Xenodikos) from Agathokles' control when 
       he was in Africa.
       The eastern end of the hill abandoned. Remaaining inhabitants concentrated near Capo Soprano.
282 BC Gela destroyed by the Mamertini from Messana.
       The remainder of the inhabitants were transferred by Phintias (tyrant of Akragas) to his 
       newly-founded city of Phintias (modern Licata).

1233 AD Frederik II refounded the city as Terranova di Sicilia.
1927 AD name changed to Gela