Syrakousai, Syracusa, Syracuse (Siracusa)

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734/3 BC Founded by Corinth 

Rulers of Syracusa

505  -498   BC Cleander
498  -491   BC Hippocrates of Gela tyrant after the assassination of his broher,
               Naxos, Leontinoi and Zancle conquered, on invitation Samian refugees from Ionia.
               Conflict with Anaxilas of Rhegium (494-476 BC). Anaxilas x Cydipe (daughter of
               Terillus, tyrant of Himera).
               Hippocrates' Attack on Syracusa failed.
492         BC Kamarina in hands Hippocrates by mediation of Corinth.
               Hippocrates died fighting the Sicels
491  -478   BC Gelon tyrant of Syracusa. Cavalry commander under Hippocrates.
490         BC Zancle occupied by Anaxilas, expelled the Samians and resettled the city with
               Messenians (name Messana)                           
489/88      BC Gelon joined his father-in-law Theron, tyrant of Akragas, in an attempt to expel
               the Carthagenians from Heraclea Minoa
485         BC Gelon intervened (on invitation) in Syracusan civil war. He captured Syracusa
               and made it his capital
480         BC Major Carthaginian invasion in support of Terillus  (tyrant of Himera, expelled 
               by Theron of Akragas 483 BC) and Anaxilas of Rhegion (494-476 BC). Carthaginians 
               under Hamilcar defeated.
478  -467/6 BC Hieron I tyrant of Syracuse, brother of Gelon (father Deinomenes).
               Intervened in southern Italy against Anaxilas of Rhegium and against Croton.
475         BC Refounded Catana under the name Aetna
474         BC Won a decisive naval victory against the Etruskans at Cumae (474 BC).
               Founded a Syracusan colony on Ischia .
467/6-         Thrasybulus (Thrasuboulos), brother of Gelon and Hieron I.
               Revolt Syracusa supported by other Sicilian cities. Thrasybulus defeated and retired to Locri.
466  -406   BC second democracy
406  -367   BC Dionysios I, tyrant of Syracusa
367  -343/2 BC Dionysios II, tyrant of Syracusa (son of Dionysios I)
357  -354   BC Dion
344  -336   BC Timoleon
336  -317   BC third democracy
317  -289   BC Agathocles
289  -287   BC fourth democracy
287  -278   BC Hiketas
278  -276   BC Pyrrhus
275/4-216   BC Hieron II
215  -214   BC Hieronymus
214  -212   BC democracy
212  -      BC Romans