Zancle, Messane

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           Sicel town before the foundation of Greek colonists.
           Sicle the shape of the natural harbour.
730-725 BC Foundation of Zancle by Chalcidian Ionic colonists.
494-493 BC captured by refugees Samos Miletus (Persians), called by Anaxilas of Rhegion.
489-461 BC Anaxilas drives out the Samii and repeoples the city with the Messeni
           (renamed the city Messana)
           later the  son of Anaxilas ruler over the city.
461-396 BC Messana independent.  
397/6 BC   Destroyed by Carthago (Himilco), a blow from which it only slowly recovered
           during the 4th Cent.
           Rebuilt by Dionysios of Syracusa
           Liberated by Timoleon
314 BC     The city is occupied by Agathocles, due to its alliance with Gela and Akragas.
288 BC     Mamertines (Mamerte the Oscan war-god). Oscan mercenaries coming from Syracuse.
           The inhabitants were massacred and the new regime ruled the city until Roman times.
280 BC     Revolt of the Campanians (mercenaries) in Rhegion; this is the first time
           the Mamertines at Messana are mentioned. The two cities seem to have succeeded in
           retaining their position against Pyrrhus and to have barred his way across
           the Strait of Messina.
270 BC     Rhegion conquered by the Romans. The decline of the Mamertines begins. 
265/4 BC   Hieron II of Syracusa defeated the Mamertines at the Longanus river.
           The domain of the Mamertines is restricted to the city of Messana.
           The Mamertines call for help both to Carthago and to Rome.
           The Carthaginians placed  a garrison in the city, but in the end
           Messana placed itself under the protection of the Romans.